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Sources of microorganisms in raw materials and finished products. Microbiological control in the production of cider

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Конспект лекции по дисциплине «Sources of microorganisms in raw materials and finished products. Microbiological control in the production of cider» docx
The first task 1. Sources of microorganisms in raw materials and finished products The presentation should include the following points 1. Introduction 2. Source of microorganisms in food production 2.1. Raw materials( water, fruits and vegetables, meat ) 2.2. Air 2.3. Technological equipment and containers 2.4. Staff ( workers) 2.5. ETC…….. 3. REFERENCES The second task Microbiological control in the production of cider 1- The purpose of Microbiological control 2- At what stages of cider production there is microbiological control 3- Presentation table which includes the following items • Object of study • Place of sampling ( at any stage of production) \ • Indicator and frequency( How many times we should to take sample for analysis ) The third task Implementation of the HACCP system at the enterprise in the production of cider The purpose of discipline 1- Introduction to the discipline. Quality and safety of food raw materials and food 2- Microbiological indicators of quality and safety of food products 3- Pesticides: Classification and Properties. Food Safety Criteria Food and food safety 1. INTRODUCTION The diseases caused by food, or the foodborne diseases, are described as the illnesses with which people are infected by the foods they eat [1]. These diseases are a widespread public health issue and are expensive to treat [2]. Foodborne diseases result from the consumption of contaminated foods and products. Contamination of the food at any stage, from production to consumption, produces bacteria, viruses, parasites, chemical agents and toxins, which eventually cause the foodborne diseases. These diseases are seen as a pervasive, permanent problem that can lead to morbidity and, occasionally, to mortality. Foodborne diseases are increasing worldwide, particularly in the developing countries, due to neglect of personal hygiene and food hygiene . Foodborne illnesses pose a threat to international public health safety and economic development. With the increasing amount of trade, travel and immigration, the rate at which dangerous contaminants and pathogens pass through the borders has also risen. Every year, approximately 2.2 million people, a majority of whom are children living in developing countries, die as a result of food and water contamination .Typhoid fever occurs in 16.6 million people and causes 600,000 deaths every year around the world. In the United States, contaminated foods are seen as being responsible for nearly 76 million infections, 325,000 hospital cases and 5000 deaths every year .According to 2011 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), it was estimated that in the United States, one out of every six persons was infected with foodborne illness (48 million people) and that foodborne illnesses resulted in 128,000 hospital cases and 3000 deaths . In 2013, FoodNet, a CDC-established program that tracks foodborne illnesses in the United States, found that foodborne illnesses were responsible for 19,056 infections, 4,200 hospital cases and 80 deaths. The incidence of bacteria responsible for causing diseases in every 100.000 people was determined to be 15.19 for Salmonella, 13.82 for Campylobacter, 4.82 for Shigella, 2.48 for Cryptosporidium, 1.15 for STEC non-O157, 0.51 for Vibrio, 0.36 for Yersinia, 0.26 for Listeria and 0.03 for Cyclospora. Incidences of Cyclospora, Listeria and Vibrio were found to be the highest among the elderly, aged 65 years and older, whereas for all of the other pathogens, the highest incident rates were found among children younger than 5 years of age. The diseases caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter, the main agents responsible for foodborne infections, are dramatically increasing in some countries, including Denmark, Finland, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. In 1999 and 2000, the number of reported foodborne disease cases was 84,340 and 77,515, respectively in Turkey. While Salmonella is the most frequently encountered disease agent, the actual figures on foodborne infections and toxins are not reflected, as it is not mandatory to report these diseases . The world’s growing population and the consumers' desire to be provided with a wider range of foods have resulted in a longer and more complex food chain. Today, foods reach consumers after being collected from fields, farms and factories and then pass onto many countries, traveling distances of thousands of kilometers. With this global food distribution, an infection that occurs at any point within the food chain has the potential of affecting any given population in the world. It is therefore essential, given the number of interactions taking place between the actors involved in the food chain and the long distances between them, that multi-sectorial and international collaboration take place. As no country can provide food safety on its own, safety measures need to be enhanced in many countries . While experts on food safety and health have determined that millions of foodborne disease cases are reported every year, the actual numbers are clouded by uncertainty, as most cases go unreported. Furthermore, foodborne diseases are difficult to diagnose, since they have various symptoms, including fatigue, chills, mild fever, vertigo, upset stomach, dehydration caused by diarrhea, severe cramps and, in some cases, even death. In many of the reported cases, foods prepared outside of the home are the primary cause of foodborne diseases, though it is not uncommon for home-made foods to also cause diseases .Studies conducted on the distribution of foodborne diseases across the world have demonstrated that a majority of these diseases occur during the processing of the food in the preparation stage at home or at food production sites . In fact, most foodborne diseases can be prevented if the regulations governing food safety were complied with, from production stages to consumption . Improper heating of the food, such as undercooking, re-heating and waiting in the heat, or improper cooling of the food account for 44% of the foodborne illnesses. Inadequate preparation and improper cooking practices, such as those involving cross-contamination, insufficient processing, poor hygiene and the re-use of leftovers, are responsible for causing 14% of these diseases . As indicated by these figures, foodborne diseases are widespread throughout the world. The process by which a foodborne disease spreads begins with the features of the disease contaminating the food, which in turn threaten both individual and public health by means of the foods. Healthy, or what can be termed as safe, food is food that has not lost its nutritional value, that is clean, in physical, chemical and microbiological terms and that is not stale. The factors causing the contamination of the food may threaten the safe consumption of it and thereby make the foods harmful to human health. For this reason, it is necessary to utilize various resources to prevent the food from being contaminated at all stages of the food chain, from harvest to consumption . This study conducts an analysis of the factors responsible for jeopardizing food safety and food safety policies throughout the world. 2. The factors that affect food safety. Foods are the basic building blocks of living things, yet they may pose a threat and become harmful to human health in some situations. Many people throughout the world become ill because of the food they eat. These diseases associated with food consumption are referred to as foodborne diseases, and they may result from dangerous microorganisms. Foods can become harmful to human health or even fatal when combined with bacteria, mold, viruses, parasites and chemical toxins . Therefore, it is absolutely necessary that consumers be provided with a safe food supply. The factors involved in the potential threat caused by foods are inappropriate agricultural practices, poor hygiene at any stage of the food chain, lack of preventive controls during processing and preparation of the food, incorrect use of the chemical materials, contaminated raw materials, food and water and inappropriate storage. These issues were classified into categories: food hygiene, personal hygiene of food handlers  2.1.1 Food hygiene Many factors serve to undermine food hygiene. The hygienic quality of the foods is negatively influenced by purchasing low-quality or stale foods, storing food in inappropriate conditions, cooking large amounts of food, more than is necessary, and letting it sit in inappropriate environments, storing raw and cooked foods together and preparing, cooking and storing food using incorrect methods . If foods are contaminated at any stage, from production to consumption, the hygiene of the food is compromised, depending on the temperature, humidity and pH values of the environment it is stored in, and the food then becomes potentially harmful to human health. An infection or intoxication caused by the consumption of a contaminated food or drink is called food poisoning. The causes of food poisoning are classified as microorganisms, parasites, chemicals, naturally created food toxins, naturally created fish toxins, metabolic disorders, allergic reactions and radioactive substances. Salmonella, Campylobacter and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are foodborne pathogens that affect millions of people every year. Symptoms of food poisoning caused by these pathogens include fever, headache, upset stomach, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Although food poisoning is mostly caused by bacteria, some parasites and viruses can also be factors. Parasites such as Trichinella spiralis and Toxoplasma gondii can remain alive by using the nutritional elements in the carrier. Viruses such as Hepatitis A can behave like parasites and infect people as well as the entire food chain . Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, Streptococcus, Shigella, Clostridium botulinum, E. coli 0157:H7, Campylobacter and Bacillus cereus are the microorganisms that most frequently cause food poisoning . Infections caused by microorganisms are largely the result of the poor hygiene of the person responsible for preparing the food. These microorganisms can rapidly reproduce in temperatures outside the safe ranges specified by food safety regulations  2.1.2. Personal Hygiene of Food Handlers The food processing stage is one of the most important stages in the food chain, and those responsible for performing the duties involved in this stage assume major responsibilities in the prevention of food poisoning cases. The food processing staff should include healthy individuals who do not have any diseases, and they should undergo regular medical check-ups. In addition to being healthy, it is also important that the workers take particular care for their personal hygiene and execute proper food handling behavior. This is especially important because food handlers can cause cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods, and they may jeopardize food hygiene by improper preparation, cooking and storage of foods. A study confirmed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) determined that 81 foodborne diseases were caused by foods contaminated via food processing workers . It should be noted that food workers have the power to make a remarkable impact on public health. In reducing the foodborne diseases or food poisoning, the personal hygiene practices of workers at food production sites are a key factor .It is well known that proper personal hygiene is the best way to mitigate the risks associated with contamination by most of the bacteria generally seen as being responsible for foodborne diseases (Table 1) . Pathogen Foods involved/sources Prevention Campylobacter Unpasteurized dairy, poultry and meats, infected food handler Cook all foods thoroughly. Use only pasteurized dairy products. Wash hands properly. Hepatitis A Water, ice, shellfish, salads, cold cuts, sandwiches, fruits, fruit juices, milk, milk products, vegetables, any food that will not undergo further heat treatment Purchase shellfish from approved suppliers. Prevent cross–contamination through hands. Ensure food handlers practice proper hand washing, and prevent bare hand contact with food. Norovirus Raw fruit, raw vegetables, prepared salads, raw shellfish Cook foods thoroughly. Wash hands. Use certified shellfish. No bare hand contact with food. (Staph) S. aureus Ready-to-eat foods, i.e., sandwiches, salads, ham and other meats, potato salads, custards, warmed-up foods; food handlers' infected cuts, throat, nose and acne Practice proper hand washing and hygiene. Avoid cross-contamination. Keep bare hand contact with foods to a minimum. Prohibit workers who have cuts and lesions from handling the food. Cool foods rapidly. Salmonella Undercooked or raw meats, poultry & shell eggs, poultry and egg salads, egg custards and sauces, protein-containing foods, pets and infected food handlers Avoid cross-contamination. Cool and refrigerate foods immediately. Cook meats / poultry thoroughly. Practice proper hand washing. Shigella Ready-to-eat foods associated with bare hand contact (salads, sandwiches, etc.), source: human feces and flies Practice proper hand washing after using the bathroom. Use only approved water and foods Control flies. No bare hand Contact with food. The topics involving workers at food processing sites and food hygiene were classified under the following titles: Health status, Illness and injuries, Personal cleanliness and Personal behavior. Persons who have any disease that may cause food infection or persons who are suspected to be hosts should not be allowed into the food processing site. Workers at food processing sites who have any symptoms associated with infections should be reported to the administration, and they must be examined by a physician . Accordingly, the law that entered into force in Turkey in 1996 includes the provision: “The staff to be hired to work in the processing of foods and food additives cannot be employed without first providing a medical report. Those who are determined to be carriers should immediately be treated. Those who do not obtain a clean bill of health after completing their treatment should definitely not be employed. The owner or administrator of the workplace is responsible for ensuring that the workplace is in compliance with all of these practices” . Similarly, it is reported that in certain regions in the United States, workers at food processing sites are required to show a health card to their employers . In the WHO consultation report, routine medical and microbiological examinations of food handlers are not generally recommended, but if food handlers are suffering from an illness that includes symptoms such as jaundice, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, sore throat, skin rash or skin lesions, like boils or cuts, they should report this to their supervisor before starting work . If workers have a sore throat or fever, open cuts or infected wounds, Norovirus, diarrhea, vomiting or jaundice or if they have had contact with someone who has Salmonella typhi, E. coli 0157:H7, Hepatitis A or Shigella, they should immediately be removed from the food production sites. The employer must take the necessary precautions within 24 hours and report these workers to the relevant institutions. Many studies have recommended that food production sites include health service units and that it was important that workers report their diseases. The hygiene practices that should be performed by food processing workers include precise adherence to personal hygiene regulations and the wearing of special, protective attire such as bonnets and gloves to help secure their hygiene. It is important that these clothes be regularly cleaned and cared for .Reports have shown that the lack of personal hygiene among workers at food processing sites was among one of the practices that contributed to food borne diseases and that proper hand washing was the most commonly neglected practice. The practice of improper hand washing may be an important factor in the spreading of foodborne diseases by cross-contamination. It was reported that of the staff working in food production sites, 60% did not wash their hands correctly, and of the foodborne diseases, 25 to 40% were linked to staff working in food processing and food services industries . It was also reported that food processing and food service workers were the asymptomatic carriers of the pathogens which caused food poisoning, due to their failure to wash their hands properly after using the restroom]. Another study determined that the foods became infected due to improper cleaning of contaminated hands after using the restroom .Aycicek .took samples from bare hands and hands with gloves during the food preparation stage (180 in total) and found that the bacteria load on bare hands was significantly higher than that of the gloved hands (p < 0.05). The most common bacteria found were S. aureus (126/180), Bacillus spp. (19/180) and E. coli (14/180). In addition, many studies have reported that workers in the food processing industry did not show enough care in washing their hands properly when necessary and in using protective attire (e.g., gloves, bonnet) [. The situations when workers should wash their hands are summarized below. • Before starting to prepare food • Before touching unpacked foods and clean equipment • Before serving the foods and touching the clean utensils and equipment • Before changing tasks from raw meat to ready-to-consume foods in order to prevent cross-contamination during food preparation practices • After touching any part of the body • After using the restroom • After coughing, sneezing or using a handkerchief • After smoking • After eating or drinking something • After touching unclean equipment and tools • After leaving the kitchen and before entering again • After washing the dishes • After touching the handle of the refrigerator, door or any other place commonly used by people during food preparation practices • After touching working clothes • Before and after entering areas where foods are kept and stored • After handling cash • Before wearing gloves and after taking them off, hands should be properly washed according to hygiene rules . The steps for proper hygienic hand washing are: wash hands and wrists with soap under clean running water, being sure to rub between the fingers; use a nail brush to clean nails; rub arms and wrists with soap and water; soap and rub hands together for 10 to 15 seconds; dry hands with hot air or paper towel and use a paper towel to turn off the tap . It is now known that hand-drying methods are as important as hand-washing methods in the prevention of contamination by microorganisms .]. Studies have demonstrated that among all forms of drying methods, hand dryers posed the greatest threat of contamination. It was found that hand drying machines are less than an ideal alternative for drying hands after they have been washed, as these machines allow the bacteria to be able to spread as far as one meter away; therefore, the use of paper towels should be encouraged. In general, humans are the primary source of food contamination, posing a risk to food safety as carriers. Along with the many extraneous factors, such as hands, clothes, accessories, hair and mustache, internally derived factors, such as the breath, spit and wounds, can be sources of contamination. It was reported that food processing workers were capable of spreading 10,000 to 100,000 microorganisms every minute . Thus, workers should avoid certain behaviors at the production site, such as smoking, coughing, sneezing, chewing and eating. They also should not wear accessories, watches or hairpins. 2.2.Equipment hygiene Equipment that comes into regular contact with foods should be made of material able to be cleaned and disinfected, resistant to corrosion and non-toxic. The equipment should be arranged in a way as to enable it and the area around it to be cleaned sufficiently. When it is necessary that chemicals be used to clean the equipment, the instructions governing the use of those chemicals should be followed. Calibration checks of the equipment and tools should be made regularly, and these checks should be recorded [76]. 3. Food safety systems Effective food control systems are needed to improve the applicability and control of food safety . Currently, the HACCP, ISO 22000 and PAS 220 are the most commonly used internationally approved food safety systems. 3.1. Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) HACCP was first used in the 1960s by the American Pillsbury company for the purpose of producing "zero defect" products for the US Army and NASA. Later, starting in the 1970s, it began to be used as a reference by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in official supervisions. It was adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 1992 and published as the HACCP international standard for the first time. Since then, the food industry and official authorities have been using it to protect against and control the risks of potential dangers that could threaten food safety . Initially, HAACCP had three principles: 1. Identification and assessment of hazards associated with food products 2. Determination of critical control points to control identified hazards 3. Establishment of a system to monitor the critical control points The HACCP, as it is applied today, has five starting steps and is governed by seven principles. The starting steps were created by Codex, and they should be completed prior to implementing the seven HACCP principles. The starting steps help to ensure that the HACCP system is implemented and managed in the most effective way possible . The HAACP system is applicable for any company operating within the food chain, regardless of their size. In the implementation stage, the HACCP system should be supported by certain preliminary condition programs. A company interested in implementing this system should already be following the requirements of this preliminary condition program. Preliminary condition programs include national regulations, codes of practice or other food safety prerequisites. In general, preliminary condition programs involve factories and equipment, staff training, cleaning and sanitation, maintenance chemical control, waste management, storage and transportation. Table 2. HACCP Implementation in 12 Steps Five starting steps The seven principles of the HACCP system 1. Assemble HACCP team 1. Conduct a hazard analysis 2. Describe the product 2. Determine Critical Control Points 3. Identify intended use 3. Establish critical limits for each CCP 4. Construct flow diagram 4. Establish a monitoring system for each CCP 5. Conduct on-site confirmation of flow diagram 5. Establish corrective actions 6. Establish verification procedures 7. Establish documentation and record keeping HACCP is an internationally accepted system and in most countries, it is required that companies within the food industry implement this system. 3.2. ISO 22000 In 2005, The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published a standard for the Food Safety Management System known as ISO 22000. The ISO 22000 system is a combination of preliminary condition programs, HACCP principles and implementation steps defined by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and ISO 9001:2000 standard components. After it was defined, it began to be used in more than 50 countries within 2 years . The basic approach of the ISO 22000 standard is to implement a preventive system that serves to protect consumers from foodborne diseases. This standard controls all the processes in the food chain, including infrastructure, staff and equipment. In business establishments, the Food Safety Management System implementations include production control, product control, equipment control, maintenance, general hygiene practices, staff and visitor hygiene, transportation, storage, product information, training, the selection and evaluation of suppliers, communication and other similar issues . The main goal of this standard is to have a system in place that determines the unacceptable risks that may result from process errors and to secure product safety and consumer health. Food safety supervision over product, design, production and quality control determines and eliminates the potential dangers. The fundamental role of ISO 22000 is not only to provide food safety but also to improve the sensory and nutritional quality of food, and it also plays a primary role in the quality assurance of service practices in industrial production. Lastly, this standard helps to reduce operational losses by instituting a more effective use of resources to increase productivity, and thereby, directs the establishment to a system of total quality . 3.3. PAS 220 (publicly available specification) This standard was created by the major global food producers in cooperation with the Confederation of Food and Drink Industries (CIAA) with the purpose of eliminating the weaknesses of the ISO 22000 food safety system standard. Nestle, Unilever, Danone and Kraft, the sector leaders generally known as "G4", collectively published the PAS 220 standard, which refines the preliminary conditions programs. The PAS 220 standard is applicable for all types of companies and was made available in 2008. It was intended that the PAS 220 standard be used together with the internationally accepted ISO 22000 standard . The content and topics of PAS 220 elaborate on the 10 sub-titles in the ISO 22000 standard and adds 5 of its own, resulting in the following 15 items : • Structure and placement of buildings • Placement of work site, buildings and their wings • Supporting plants (air, water, energy) • Supporting services, including wastes and sewage • Adequacy of the equipment, cleaning and preventive care • Management of purchased materials • Measures against cross-contamination • Cleaning and sanitation • Pest control • Staff hygiene and workers' lodgings • Re-processing • Product recall procedures • Storage • Informing consumers about products • Food defense, biodefense and bioterrorism. 1- 9.10 2020 the food and food sefty 2-13 .10 .2020 HCCP system determination and explanation 3- 16.10 2020 task 1Microbiological control in the production of cider 4. 20.10. Physicochemical Methods in Quality Control of Biotechnological Products Training and explanation about the equipment. 6. 27.10.2020. 7. 25.11.2020

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